Xi Jinping: Correctly Understanding and Grasping Major Theoretical and Practical Issues in my country's Development

Release Time:

2023-05-13 09:34

  from December 8 to 10, 2021, the central economic work conference was held in Beijing. Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, state president, and chairman of the Central Military Commission attended the meeting and delivered an important speech. Xinhua News Agency reporter Ju Peng/Photography


Entering a new stage of development, profound changes have taken place in the internal and external environment of our country's development, and we are facing many new major problems, which need to be correctly understood and grasped. Here, I will focus on a few issues.

The first question: Correctly understand and grasp the strategic goals and practical approaches to achieve common prosperity. "A country is said to be rich because it cares about its people." The creation and distribution of wealth is a major issue faced by all countries. Some western countries have long-term disparities and polarization between the rich and the poor while their social wealth continues to grow. In some Latin American countries, the income is not high, but the distribution gap is very large. Under my country's socialist system, it is necessary to continuously liberate and develop social productive forces, continuously create and accumulate social wealth, and prevent polarization, and effectively promote the all-round development of people and the common prosperity of all people to achieve more obvious substantive progress. In the past, we were egalitarian at a low income level. After the reform and opening up, some regions and some people got rich first, and the income gap gradually widened. Some improper accumulation of wealth has brought risks and challenges to the healthy operation of the economy and society.

Common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics. How should we go about the path of common prosperity? We are exploring. To achieve the goal of common prosperity, we must first make the "cake" bigger and better through the joint efforts of the people of the whole country, and then properly handle the relationship between growth and distribution through reasonable institutional arrangements to cut and divide the "cake". This is a long-term historical process. We must create conditions, improve the system, and steadily move towards this goal.

It is necessary to strengthen employment priority orientation in promoting high-quality development. Employment is the foundation of people's livelihood. It is necessary to improve the employment driving force of economic growth, and continuously promote the expansion and quality of employment. It is necessary to support the development of small, medium and micro enterprises and give full play to their role as a channel for employment. It is necessary to learn the lessons of some Western countries' economies "turning away from the real to the virtual", continue to grow the real economy, and create more high-quality jobs. It is necessary to increase human capital investment, improve the quality of education, strengthen vocational education and skills training, improve the quality of workers, better meet the needs of high-quality development, and effectively prevent the risk of large-scale unemployment.

It is necessary to play the assigned functions and roles. It is necessary to properly handle the relationship between efficiency and fairness, and establish a basic institutional arrangement for the coordination and matching of primary distribution, redistribution, and tertiary distribution. We must insist on distribution according to work as the main body, increase the proportion of labor remuneration in the primary distribution, and improve the policy of distribution according to factors. It is necessary to give full play to the regulatory role of redistribution, increase the adjustment of taxation, social security, transfer payments, etc., and improve the accuracy. We must give full play to the role of the third distribution, guide and support willing and capable enterprises and social groups to actively participate in public welfare and charity, but we must not engage in moral kidnapping-style "forced donations."

It is necessary to improve the public service policy system. Promoting common prosperity should not engage in "welfarism". When some Latin American countries practiced populism, Gao Fuli raised a group of "lazy people" and those who got nothing for nothing. As a result, the country's finances were overwhelmed, and they fell into the "middle-income trap" from which they could not extricate themselves for a long time. If the welfare benefits go up, they will not come down. It is unsustainable to engage in "welfarism" beyond our ability, and it will inevitably bring about serious economic and political problems! We must insist on doing our best and doing what we can, focusing on improving the level of public services, Precisely provide basic public services in education, medical care, elderly care, housing and other areas that the people are most concerned about, keep the bottom line of the basic life of the poor, and do not raise appetites or make empty promises.

The second question: Correctly understand and grasp the characteristics and behavioral laws of capital. Marx and Engels did not envision a market economy under socialism, and of course they could not predict how socialist countries would treat capital. Although Lenin and Stalin led the socialist construction of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union implemented a highly centralized planned economic system at that time, and basically did not encounter large-scale capital problems. Building a socialist market economy is a great creation of our party. Since it is a socialist market economy, it will inevitably produce various forms of capital. Although there are many differences between capital in a capitalist society and capital in a socialist society, capital is all about pursuing profits. "The wealth of the people in the world is the one who manages the wealth of the world, and the law is the one who manages the wealth of the world." We must explore how to play the positive role of capital under the conditions of a socialist market economy, while effectively controlling the negative role of capital. In recent years, due to lack of understanding and lack of supervision, some fields in our country have experienced capital expansion without order, wanton manipulation, and profiteering. This requires standardizing the behavior of capital, seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages, not only preventing "capital predators" from acting recklessly, but also giving full play to the function of capital as a factor of production. This is a major political and economic issue that cannot be avoided.

In actual work, we must pay attention to the following points. To set a "traffic light" for capital. "Traffic lights" apply to all means of transportation on the road, and the same applies to capital, and all types of capital cannot run amok. It is necessary to prevent some capital from growing wildly. Anti-monopoly, anti-profiteering, anti-high prices, anti-malicious hype, anti-unfair competition. It is necessary to strengthen the effective supervision of capital in accordance with the law. The socialist market economy is an economy ruled by law, and capital activities must be conducted in accordance with the law. To curb the disorderly expansion of capital is not to eliminate capital, but to require capital to develop in an orderly manner. Relevant laws and regulations that are not perfect must be improved as soon as possible, and existing laws and regulations must be strictly enforced and supervised. It is necessary to support and guide the healthy development of capital regulations. We must uphold and improve the basic socialist economic system, unswervingly consolidate and develop the public sector of the economy, unswervingly encourage, support, and guide the development of the non-public sector of the economy, and promote the healthy development of the non-public sector of the economy and the healthy growth of non-public sectors of the economy.

The third question: Correctly understand and grasp the supply guarantee of primary products. For a big country like ours, ensuring the supply of primary products is a major strategic issue. It is necessary to strengthen strategic planning and make early adjustments to ensure supply security.

We must insist on giving priority to saving. "If you take it with restraint and use it sparingly, you will have plenty; if you take it without restraint, you will run out of it if you don't use it sparingly." It is necessary to implement a comprehensive conservation strategy and promote conservation actions in various fields. In the field of production, it is necessary to promote the comprehensive conservation, intensive and recycling of resources, reduce the energy consumption and material consumption per unit of product, accelerate the technological transformation of the manufacturing industry, and improve the efficiency of input and output. In the field of consumption, it is necessary to enhance the people's awareness of conservation, advocate a simple, moderate, green and low-carbon lifestyle, oppose extravagance, waste and excessive consumption, carry out in-depth food conservation actions such as "CD-ROMs", and extensively carry out the establishment of green institutions, green families, green communities, Green travel and other actions.

It is necessary to enhance the domestic resource production guarantee capacity. It is necessary to intensify exploration efforts, implement a new round of prospecting and breakthrough strategic actions, and improve the level of development and protection of marine resources and mineral resources. It is necessary to clarify the strategic bottom line of self-sufficiency in domestic production of important energy resources, give play to the supporting role of state-owned enterprises, and accelerate the development and application of advanced mining technologies for oil and gas and other resources. It is necessary to strengthen the construction of the national strategic material reserve system, and play the role of regulating the bottom line at critical moments. It is necessary to promote garbage classification and recycling, expand the use of domestic solid waste, and accelerate the establishment of a waste recycling system.


  From April 10 to 13, 2022, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, President of the State, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, visited Hainan. It was the afternoon of the 11th. Xi Jinping waved to the villagers in Maona Village, Shuiman Township, Wuzhishan City. Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Xueren/Photography



It is necessary to optimize the ability to guarantee overseas resources. It is necessary to make full use of both international and domestic markets and resources in a mutually beneficial and win-win manner, strengthen energy and resource cooperation with relevant countries on the premise of effectively preventing foreign investment risks, and expand the rights and interests of overseas high-quality resources.

Here, I would like to particularly emphasize the issue of agricultural product supply security. According to the latest national land survey results, the area of cultivated land is still decreasing, and the basic farmland in some places is not planted with grain, fruit trees or other high value-added crops. I have repeatedly said that the rice bowl of the Chinese people must be held firmly in their own hands at all times, and our rice bowl should mainly be filled with Chinese food. It is necessary to put the improvement of comprehensive agricultural production capacity in a more prominent position, continue to promote the construction of high-standard farmland, implement in-depth actions to revitalize the seed industry, improve the level of agricultural machinery and equipment, ensure reasonable income for farmers who grow grain, ensure absolute security of food rations, and basically self-sufficient grain, and increase Production capacity and self-sufficiency of oilseeds and soybeans.

The fourth question: Correctly understand and grasp the prevention and resolution of major risks. Since the 1990s, our country has effectively responded to major tests such as the Asian financial crisis, the international financial crisis, and the new crown pneumonia epidemic. At present, there are many hidden dangers in my country's economic and financial fields, but they are generally controllable. We must adhere to the bottom line thinking. The ancients said: "When misfortunes start to happen, we should eradicate their germs; when diseases and symptoms are square, we should eradicate their roots." We must give full play to the leadership of the party and the advantages of our country's socialist system, see the small things, catch the small ones early, and focus on avoiding major risks. or crisis.

In the previous stage, we effectively dealt with shadow banking risks and Internet financial risks. At the same time, we must also see that new risks are still occurring, and incidents of "black swan" and "grey rhinoceros" continue. There are several important reasons for analyzing these phenomena. One is the result of long-term accumulation. The impact of the "three-period superposition" has not yet ended, and the risks in the early stage still need to be digested. The second is regulatory capacity and institutional defects. The corporate governance of financial institutions has been seriously neglected, and the ability and level of financial supervision are not suitable. The management of local debts has been lax, and some localities have borrowed in violation of regulations in disguise, and the debt burden has continued to increase. The third is the brutal behavior of the borrower. Some large enterprises are blindly impulsive, irrationally diversified and expanded, relying too much on financial leverage, and industrial capital excessively entering the financial industry. Some shareholders and actual controllers operate and manage financial enterprises in violation of laws and regulations. There are insider control, manipulation by major shareholders, financial fraud, and wanton misappropriation of funds. The fourth is collusion between officials and businessmen and corruption. Some heads of financial institutions and government officials have neglected their duties, committed corruption, enriched their own pockets, and generously generous to the country, causing heavy losses. Fifth, changes in the economic cycle. Under the economic growth rate, all kinds of hidden risks have come to light, the probability of local risks triggering systemic risks has increased, and the risks characterized by corporate insolvency have become prominent.

In the next step, we must continue to focus on risk management in accordance with the basic principles of stabilizing the overall situation, overall planning and coordination, classified policies, and precise bomb disposal. It is necessary to comply with laws and regulations, strengthen the construction of the financial rule of law, and explore the establishment of a regular law revision system. Responsibilities must be clarified, "whoever owns the child", and the local party and government are responsible for maintaining stability and mitigating risks in the territory; clarifying the responsibilities of financial supervision, industry supervisors, discipline inspection and supervision departments, and promoting risk resolution in accordance with their respective responsibilities; Realize the main responsibility of enterprises for self-rescue, and formulate feasible risk resolution plans. It is necessary to strengthen capacity building, improve the level of regulatory technology, make up for regulatory shortcomings, and strengthen the construction of financial regulatory cadres. Sufficient resources are needed to establish a financial stability guarantee fund as soon as possible, give full play to the role of the deposit insurance system and industry guarantee funds in risk management, and study and formulate support policies to promote mergers and acquisitions of financial institutions and resolve non-performing assets. Local governments should take the initiative to revitalize stock assets and defuse risks. Shareholders of the enterprise must first bear the risk of loss until the share capital is cleared. It is necessary for all parties to cooperate extensively, and the financial industry establishes an integrated risk disposal mechanism, fully authorizes, coordinates and improves cross-market and cross-industry overall response capabilities.

Special attention should be paid to the risks of some real estate enterprises. All localities must earnestly shoulder their responsibilities, strengthen supervision, keep the bottom line of no systemic risks, and maintain the stable and healthy development of the real estate market.

The fifth question: Correctly understand and grasp the carbon peak and carbon neutrality. Promoting carbon peaking and carbon neutrality is a major strategic decision made by the Party Central Committee after careful consideration. It is our solemn commitment to the international community and an inherent requirement for promoting high-quality development. Recently, some problems have arisen in actual work, some are engaged in "carbon charge", some are engaged in "one size fits all", campaign-style "carbon reduction", and even the phenomenon of "power cuts". These are not in line with the requirements of the Party Central Committee. Green and low-carbon development is a complex project and a long-term task for the comprehensive transformation of economic and social development. The adjustment of energy structure and industrial structure cannot be achieved overnight, let alone divorced from reality. If the gradual withdrawal of traditional energy is not based on the safe and reliable replacement of new energy, it will have an impact on economic development and social stability. Pollution reduction and carbon reduction are an integral part of economic structural adjustment, which must be established first and then broken, and comprehensively planned.


  From September 13 to 14, 2021, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, State President, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, visited Yulin City, Shaanxi Province. This is the morning of the 13th. Xi Jinping inspected the site of the 400,000-ton ethylene glycol project of Yulin Chemical Co., Ltd. of the National Energy Group. Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Xueren/Photography




At the ninth meeting of the Central Finance and Economics Committee, I made a comprehensive deployment of the "dual carbon" work, emphasizing the need to adhere to the principles of national overall planning, conservation priority, two-wheel drive, internal and external smooth flow, and risk prevention. The Party Central Committee has issued opinions on doing a good job in carbon neutralization of carbon peak and approved the carbon peak action plan. The goal of achieving carbon neutrality at the peak of carbon dioxide must be unswerving, but it is impossible to accomplish it all at once. We must persist in making steady progress and gradually realize it. To base ourselves on the national conditions, coal is our basic national condition, and we must base ourselves on this reality to achieve carbon peaking. While doing a good job in the clean and efficient utilization of coal, accelerate the flexibility transformation of coal power units, develop renewable energy, promote the optimal combination of coal and new energy, and increase the capacity of new energy consumption. We must pay close attention to tackling key problems in green and low-carbon technologies, and accelerate the popularization and application of advanced technologies. It is necessary to scientifically assess, improve the "dual control" system of energy consumption, create conditions to realize the transformation from "dual control" of energy consumption to "dual control" of total carbon emissions and intensity as soon as possible, and accelerate the formation of an incentive and restraint mechanism for reducing pollution and carbon emissions. All relevant departments in all regions should coordinate and do a good job in the work of "dual control" and "dual carbon" to prevent simple layer-by-layer decomposition. To ensure energy supply, achieve multi-objective balance, and increase energy supply through multiple channels, large enterprises, especially state-owned enterprises, must take the lead in ensuring supply and stable prices, and major events such as large-scale "power cuts" must not be allowed to occur again. It is necessary to further promote the energy revolution, promote reforms in energy consumption, supply, technology, and system, strengthen international cooperation, and accelerate the construction of an energy power.

※This is part of General Secretary Xi Jinping's speech at the Central Economic Work Conference on December 8, 2021.

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